The transitions involved call for decisive action.
Opportunities and Challenges for the Nordic Working Life Models
Countless opportunities lie ahead to improve the quality of working lives, expand choice, close the gender gap, reverse the damages wreaked by global inequality, and much more. Yet none of this will happen by itself.
To strengthen the knowledge base, in June the Nordic Council of Ministers launched a call for a three-year research project to study the future of work in the Nordic countries.
Among the central questions the project set out to explore were: How are work and working life likely to change in the coming 15—20 years, and what are the main drivers online dating i lit change? How will the Nordic world of work be influenced by the ongoing changes in demography, climate, technology, and the global economy?
How will the new digital technologies influence employment? Will a large number of jobs be rendered obsolete, or will increasing productivity spur creation of new and different jobs? How are online dating i lit occupational structure and ways in which we work likely to change?
Will we see an upgrading or polarization of jobs skållerud single skill requirements? How will the changes affect working environments, working conditions, employment relations, the regulation of working life, and the Nordic labour market models?
The COVID twist Yet, when the project work was entering its final stage, the COVID pandemic unleashed a global crisis unparalleled in contemporary history, reminding us that the future often emerges in unforeseen ways and with unprecedented force.
As the empirical work in the thematic pillars was already finished, we had no opportunity to make any systematic assessment of how the unfolding COVID crisis may influence the transition to the future world of work.
Yet, it is hard to ignore the impact of the COVID crisis when discussing the findings in this project.
As it is still too early to judge the long-term consequences of the in time of writing ongoing COVID crisis, our intention is mainly to spur awareness and debate about its possible impact and policy implications.
Irrespective of its longer-term consequences, the COVID crisis illustrates the multifarious mechanisms through which our work and livelihoods, economies, production systems and the social fabric can be disrupted in the interconnected world of globalization. Online dating i lit drivers of change Changes in working life are driven by a variety of factors.
Debates in recent years on the future of work have often concentrated narrowly on technological change, whereas other forces of change that are altering working life have been overlooked.
Along with digitalization, Section 1. The impact of these megatrends on working life is neither unidirectional nor independent of political agency. Sometimes the trends pull in divergent directions, and some trends may even reverse, as indicated by the recent signs of deglobalization James, ; Balsa-Barreiro et al. Moreover, as underscored in the initial project report Dølvik and Steen,the opportunities and threats the mega-trends may imply for employment, salem mötesplatser för äldre, and work depend on economic circumstances, the responses of economic actors, the ways their effects are filtered by institutions and policies, and — as underscored above — on entirely unforeseen events.
Nordic Council Literature Prize
Hence, the future of work is not pre-determined by the megatrends. Their evolution and impact on working life are contingent on human agency, and likely to follow divergent national trajectories and differ across industries and groups of employees.
Aiming to provide knowledge that can stimulate and inform action-oriented public debates here and now, we have chosen a medium-term perspective — 15—20 years — in the project. This should be sufficiently far ahead to help societal actors escape their everyday quandaries, while near enough for them to realize that if they want to influence the future, they should start thinking about it today.
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From träffa singlar rogberga- öggestorp a perspective, it is preferable to be proactive by forming a fundamental idea of the direction in which things are moving, rather than waiting for more detailed information about what may or may not occur in the distant future. The structure and vantage point of the report Internationally, the evolution of the Nordic labour market models is regarded a success story, where high levels of growth and employment with have been achieved, along with lower levels of inequality than in any comparable social models Dølvik et al.
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At present, however, facing high unemployment in the wake of the COVID crisis, it can by no means be taken for granted that the Nordic success story will prevail. The twin challenge of recovering from the ongoing economic crisis and adapting to a carbon-neutral, digitalized future of work, in a context of growing geopolitical rivalry, can be viewed as a formidable stress test of the Nordic models.
Although the Nordic working life actors have proven their ability to handle crises and change before, it remains to be seen whether they are equipped to handle the challenges they are presently experiencing.
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The remaining parts of the report are structured as follows: As vantage point and analytical frame of reference, the remainder of Chapter 1 provides a brief review of the Nordic model, summarizes the potential implications of the megatrends that may shape the future of work, and asks how the COVID crisis may influence the transition to the future of work. Chapter 7 aims to integrate the findings of the individual pillars mjällby träffa singlar a comprehensive, overarching discussion of the strengths and limitations of the Nordic labour market model in the face of the changing future of work, while Chapter 8 discusses the additional challenges the COVID crisis may imply in this respect.
In the final chapter we point at policy implications of our findings for the Nordic countries. In the variety of European labour market and welfare regimes, the Nordic models have been viewed as distinct from the liberal labour markets and residual welfare states of the Anglo-Saxon countries and the more state-regulated labour markets and occupation-based welfare systems of the continental countries see e.
Gallie, ; Esping-Andersen, With emphasis on competitive, solidaristic wage formation, the latter have coordinated multilevel bargaining systems with strong company tiers, forceful dispute settlement mechanisms, and strict peace duties between bargaining rounds. Prudent fiscal policies have aimed to maintain balanced budgets over the cycle, enabling countercyclical stabilization of demand growth and employment in the short term. When credit markets were liberalized in the s, independent central banks were online dating i lit greater responsibility for securing low inflation and stabilizing economic demand.
Finland hanar söker adopted the euro and Denmark pegged its currency to the euro, while the other three Nordic countries have run flexible exchange rate systems.
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The Nordic models of policy coordination have also entailed important supply-side elements Steinmo, Long-term public investment in education, welfare services and active labour market policies have promoted equal opportunities and stimulated the supply and mobility of labour and skills.
This has contributed to high labour market participation rates and highly skilled workforces. In vocational education and training VETDenmark has stood out with its comprehensive apprentice system, whereas the VET systems in the other Nordic countries have mainly been school-based — though Norway has a mixture of both Tønder and Nyen, As outlined in the Swedish Rehn-Meidner model LO,the interplay between market competition, solidaristic wage setting, and income security has spurred industrial restructuring and contributed to high levels of productivity, innovation, and mobility.
Market dynamics have reallocated labour and capital into the most productive firms Erixon,